Monday, August 31, 2015

A new goby: Gobiosoma alfiei

One of the largest families of fishes are the Gobies. More than 2000 species are currently known but it seems that there are many goby species we haven't discovered yet. Gobies include some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, such as Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea, which are under 1 cm long when fully grown.

Gobies can be found all over the world in tropical and temperate near shore-marine, brackish and freshwater environments. On coral reefs, they constitute 35% of the total number of fishes. Gobies are elusive bottom-dwellers building burrows they occupy as pairs. Some species live inside the bodies (e.g. sponges) or burrows of invertebrates.

The species name of our new species from Brazil honors Alfredo Carvalho-Filho or Alfie, as he calls himself. He is a self-made amateur ichthyologist and is recognized for his contribution to the research on the diversity and taxonomy of Brazilian marine fishes. 

For the experts: It is unclear how many species of Gobiosoma occur in Brazil and what their geographic distributions are. Here we combine data from a comprehensive morphological survey and a molecular analysis to clarify this uncertain taxonomy and place Brazilian Gobiosoma within a phylogenetic framework. Recent collections in Brazil, from the states of Ceará to Santa Catarina, and in Uruguay yielded two allopatric species of Gobiosoma that are distinct in genetics, meristics, morphometrics, scale pattern and coloration. Comparisons were made with types and specimens of Gobiosoma hemigymnum, Garmannia mediocricula, Gobiosoma spilotum and Gobiosoma parri and all other known species of Gobiosoma. We place G. parri in synonomy with G. hemigymnum with a distribution of Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay and Argentina. The northern species, that extends from the states of Espírito Santo to Ceará, is described as a new species, Gobiosoma alfiei. A key to the Atlantic species of Gobiosoma is provided.

Friday, August 28, 2015

A new death adder: Acanthophis cryptamydros

Death Adders are found mainly in Australia and also New Guinea. These animals belong to the deadliest snakes in the world. Their venom is a postsynaptic neurotoxin which causes muscle weakness and paralysis. Before the introduction of antivenom, about 60% of bites to humans were fatal.

Death adders hunt in a very unique manner. Rather than the aggressive stalking other snakes display, they will camouflage themselves in foliage and secretly lie in wait for prey to approach. This can often take hours, or even days. As they wait, they dance their tail around their hidden head as a lure, hoping to catch the interest of any creatures nearby. This tendency to wait and hide makes the a death adder particularly dangerous; if encountered by a human, the snake will likely stay in where it is. Most snakes will attempt to hide if they hear a human approaching. This makes it very easy to unknowingly step on one hidden beneath the brush. Additionally, if provoked, the death adder will give chase. They are also terrific swimmers, and won’t hesitate to traverse right through the water to get to their prey.

The new species name (Acanthophis cryptamydros) is modified from the Greek words kryptos (cryptic, hidden) and amydros (indistinct, dim) in reference to the cryptic nature of the species and its indistinct appearance relative to its surroundings making its presence unknown to predators and prey.

For the experts: Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity. 

Thursday, August 27, 2015

A new tortoise beetle: Cyrtonota abrili

Tortoise beetles are adorable little creatures that sometimes can cause considerable defoliation during severe infestation. The young larvae scrape on the surface of the leaves leaving a pale or brown translucent membrane. Older larvae and adults produce round holes. Tortoise beetles are seldom a serious pest. 

Adult beetles are round, turtle-like insects. They have thin margins that extend out from their body as well as a shield-like structure that covers their head. Some larvae are interesting because they glue caste skins, debris, and excrement together and hold it over their back like an umbrella. They stick this material at potential predators to protect themselves.

Today's species, Cyrtonota abrili, was found in Colombia and named after its collector, G. Abril.

For the experts: A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

A new amphipod: Leucothoe eltoni

Amphipods of the family Leucothoidae are commensals in sponges and ascidians and occur throughout the world's tropical and subtropical marine systems. They exhibit an unusual life history pattern involving two highly dissimilar developmental stages that occur simultaneously in the host. 
These two stages are so different they were previously assigned to separate families. Initial, or, "leucomorph" developmental stages (male and female) of different leucothoid species are nearly identical, while the transformed, or "anamorph" stage (always male) is distinct for each species. In a remarkable transformation, leucomorph males pass via a single molt to anamorph males. This transformation is accompanied by a number of extreme morphological changes that explain their placement in separate families prior to this discovery in 1983

The new species Leucothoe eltoni, was named in honor of the rock musician Sir Elton John. Specifically, in reference to the large shoe-like first gnathopod (see image above) of this species and the oversize boots Elton John wore as the local pinball champion in the movie “Tommy” (1975).

For the experts: A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

A new crayfish: Cherax snowden

Cherax is the most widespread and largest genus of fully aquatic crayfish in the Southern Hemisphere. Species may be found in lakes, rivers and streams across most of Australia, New Guinea, and South East Asia.  

In Australia these crayfish are commonly known as yabbies. These species  can survive dry conditions for long periods of time (at least several years) by lying dormant in burrows sunk deep into muddy creek and swamp beds.

This new species (Cherax snowden) was found on the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula and named after  Edward Joseph Snowden to honour his extraordinary achievements in defense of justice, and freedom.

For the experts: A new species, Cherax snowden sp. n., from the Oinsok River Drainage, Sawiat District in the central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the closest related species, Cherax holthuisi Lukhaup & Pekny, 2006. This species is collected and exported for ornamental purposes and its commercial name in the pet trade is “orange tip” or “green orange tip”. Both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial, for considering C. snowden sp. n. to be a new species.

Monday, August 24, 2015

A new newt: Tylototriton podichthys

Newts are amphibians belonging to the Salamander family. They can be found in North America, Europe and Asia. Newts metamorphose through three distinct developmental life stages: aquatic larva, terrestrial juvenile, and adult. Adult newts have lizard-like bodies and may be either living permanently in the water, or living terrestrially, but returning to the water every year to breed.

Members of the genus Tylototriton are known as crocodile newts. There are 14 described species and most of them have been described fairly recently. They are found in a range from northeastern India and Nepal through Burma to northern Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and southern China. Today's new species (Tylototriton podichthys) was collected in Laos.

For the experts: The salamandrid genus Tylototriton is poorly known in Laos, with one described species and unverified reports of two others. We undertook new fieldwork and obtained samples of Tylototriton at six localities across northern Laos during 2009–2013. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, principal component analyses of 13 mensural characters, and qualitative morphological comparisons with samples from across the geographic range of Tylototriton were performed. Samples from Laos fell into four molecular and morphological groups, consisting of T. notialis, T. panhai, T. anguliceps, and a fourth lineage that is hypothesized here to be an undescribed species. Tylototriton podichthys sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and in characteristics of the glandular skin on the head and body, shape of the rib nodules, and coloration of the body and limbs. This study expands the number of confirmed Tylototriton species in Laos from one to four, with the description of one species and extension of the ranges of T. panhai and T. anguliceps to Laos. An improved understanding of the geographic ranges of T. podichthys sp. nov. and T. anguliceps within Laos is needed. 

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

A new moth: Isopsestis poculiformis

This new species belongs to a family of moths with 650 species (Drepanidae). Some of those show some resemblance to Owlet moths. Many species in this family have a distinctively hook-shaped cusp on the fore wing, leading to their common name of hook-tips.

This new species was found in China and  named for the shape of the male genitalia.

For the experts: A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided. 

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

A new millipede: Paracortina zhangi

Millipedes are often found under mulch, piles of dead leaves, or under piles of grass clipping. They thrive in places where the soil stays damp. There they eat dead leaves and decaying wood particles that they find.

In the fall, millipedes often migrate. They move out of their normal habitat. Researchers suspect they may be trying to get ready for winter. However, they have also been seen migrating after a heavy rain has flooded their habitat. During these migrations, millipedes often find their way into our homes.

Some millipedes are well adapted to live in caves. Today's new species, Paracortina zhangi is one of these cave-dwelling representatives found in China. It was named after Chongzhou Zhang to honour his contribution to the systematics of millipedes in China.

For the experts: Two new species of the millipede genus Paracortina Wang & Zhang, 1993 are described. Both are presumed troglophiles: P. zhangi sp. n. from a cave in Ceheng County, southwestern Guizhou Province and P. yinae sp. n. from a cave in Longlin County, western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A distribution map and a key to all 12 Paracortina species are also provided.

Monday, August 17, 2015

A new seaspider: Anoplodactylus mirim

I had talked about seaspiders not long ago. Here is a new one. Sea spiders are found all over the world, from coastal tropical waters to the poles. They are also found at depths as great as 7,000 m, though they are far more common in shallower waters. They range in size from a few millimetres leg-span to giants with a leg-span of 75 cm. These creatures are not spiders per definition although many have also 4 pairs of walking legs although some species may have 5 or even 6 pairs.

The new species name mirim is derived from the Tupi-Guarani language, meaning small, in reference to its small size. Colleagues found it along the northeastern coast of Brazil.

For the experts: A new species of Anoplodactylus was discovered in coral reefs from the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. A. mirim sp. nov. is very small and is characterized for having 3 teeth on the cheliphores and a very small cement gland. It belongs to the A. pygmaeus complex, which contains very small species. A. batangensis is recorded for the first time along the Brazilian coast, and A. eroticus is recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic. We record the fifth known case of gynandromorphism, the fourth for Anoplodactylus, based on two specimens of A. eroticus.

Friday, August 14, 2015

A new parrot: Poicephalus robustus

The Cape parrot is a moderately large bird that lives in the temperate forests of South Africa. The Cape Parrot is critically endangered with an estimated current population size of less than 1600 birds in the wild. The rapid decline in numbers can be attributed to various factors, including habitat loss, illegal harvesting of wild birds and psittacine beak and feather disease.

The Cape Parrot is currently considered a sub-species called Poicephalus robustus robustus, along with two other subspecies, but based on morphological, ecological, and behavioral assessments, some scientists thought the Cape Parrot should actually be a distinct species. In a new study, researchers investigated this further by using DNA analyses and they could show that the Cape Parrot is genetically distinct from the other subspecies and therefore should be elevated to species level.

For the experts: The taxonomic position of the Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus robustus) has been the focus of much debate. A number of authors suggest that the Cape Parrot should be viewed as a distinct species separate from the other two P. robustus subspecies (P. r. fuscicollis and P. r. suahelicus). These recommendations were based on morphological, ecological, and behavioural assessments. In this study we investigated the validity of these recommendations using multilocus DNA analyses. We genotyped 138 specimens from five Poicephalus species (P. cryptoxanthus, P. gulielmi, P. meyeri, P. robustus, and P. rueppellii) using 11 microsatellite loci. Additionally, two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I gene and 16S ribosomal RNA) and one nuclear intron (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene) markers were amplified and sequenced. Bayesian clustering analysis and pairwise FST analysis of microsatellite data identified P. r. robustus as genetically distinct from the other P. robustus subspecies. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses on sequence data also supported the microsatellite analyses, placing P. r. robustus in a distinct clade separate from the other P. robustus subspecies. Molecular clock analysis places the most recent common ancestor between P. r. robustus and P. r. fuscicollis / P. r. suahelicus at 2.13 to 2.67 million years ago. Our results all support previous recommendations to elevate the Cape Parrot to species level. This will facilitate better planning and implementation of international and local conservation management strategies for the Cape Parrot.

Thursday, August 13, 2015

A new crab: Petrolisthes elegantissimus

Porcelain Crabs (family Porcellanidae) are common throughout the tropical oceans of the world.They have a flat, round body with two large front claws. These crabs have a pair of front arms called maxillipeds, which have ends that are feather-like in appearance. They use these appendages to filter the water for any passing planktonic food. Porcelain Crabs often live in pairs and in the wild they are typically found within or under rocks. 

With over 100 species the genus Petrolisthes is the most species-rich in the family and new research from Germany just added another species from Indonesia to the list. The name of the new species Petrolisthes elegantissimus is derived from the Latin word 'elegans' (tasteful, refined), referring to a more elegant and gracile general shape compared with that of closely related species. 

For the experts: The porcellanid crab Petrolisthes hastatus Stimpson, 1858, has been traditionally viewed as a highly variable species with a wide distribution in the West Pacific. For more than a century there has been taxonomic confusion of this species with morphologically similar taxa, some of which were synonymized with Stimpson’s taxon. We redefine P. hastatus, resurrect P. inermis as a valid species, discuss the status of P. tenkatei De Man, 1893, and describe a new species as P. elegantissimus from Indonesia.

Wednesday, August 12, 2015

Three new tachinid flies: Ametadoria spp.

Ametadoria karolramosae
These may look like houseflies but they very much are not.  They are integral parts of the very wild tri-trophic webs that keep this place together.

Tachinid fly larvae are parasitoids and their hosts are almost exclusively insects although for many tachinid species the hosts are unknown. They may glue their eggs to their host or lay their eggs on foliage where the host larvae will eat them. Some have ovipositors with which they inject their eggs directly into the unsuspecting host’s body. The true diversity of the family Tachinidae is likely many thousands of species higher than the 10,000 currently described, making this family perhaps the most speciose family of Diptera and without question the most successful with a parasitic way of life.

The vast majority of hosts of tachinid flies are plant-feeding insects. As a result, tachinid parasitism has two major effects at the community level: a reduction of host populations, and as a consequence a reduction in feeding damage to plants which makes these flies a prime example of the many beneficial, but mostly unseen, creatures. 

All three new species (Ametadoria karolramosae, Ametadoria leticiamartinezae, and Ametadoria mauriciogurdiani) are named after members of the accounting team for the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, to honor their invaluable work.

For the experts: We describe three new species in the genus Ametadoria Townsend from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica. All three were reared from wild-caught Zygaenidae and Lacturidae caterpillars. We provide a concise description of each species using morphology, life history and molecular data, with photographic documentation. The new species are authored and described by Fleming and Wood: Ametadoria karolramosae sp. nov., Ametadoria leticiamartinezae sp. nov., and Ametadoria mauriciogurdiani sp. nov. The following are proposed by Wood as new synonyms of Ametadoria Townsend: Adidyma Townsend syn. nov., and Abolodoria Townsend syn. nov. The following new combinations occur as a result of these new synonymies: Ametadoria abdominalis (Townsend) comb. nov., Ametadoria austrina (Coquillett) comb. nov., Ametadoria humilis (Wulp) comb. nov., Ametadoria misella (Wulp) comb. nov. Ametadoria adversa (Townsend) is proposed as a junior synonym of ​Ametadoria unispinosa Townsend, syn. nov​.

Tuesday, August 11, 2015

A new landsnail: Plekocheilus cecepeus

Credit: Dr. Abraham S. H. Breure; CC-BY 4.0
Having been collected back in the 19th century during an expedition in South America, a rather small snail species has been sitting around on the shelves of Madrid's National Museum of Natural Sciences ever since. Covered in more than a century-old dust, it was described as new only recently when an obscure specimen placed in the long tail of a historical collection drew the attention of two researchers.

Other than its moderately small size, Plekocheilus cecepeus has been characterised with an irregular shape and narrow reddish-brown streaks running vertically across the shell. The surface is rather glossy and coloured in light chestnut-brown.

The specific name refers to the abbreviation for the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (CCP) to honor the members of the expedition from 1862–1865, during which this new species was found. 

For the experts: Among the historical collection gathered by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ during 1862–1865, type material was found of one of the species described on the basis of the material collected shortly afterwards. Inspection of the types revealed that only one specimen may be considered as type material of Bulimus aristaceus Crosse, 1869; this specimen is now designated as the lectotype. The other specimens are described as a new species, Plekocheilus (P.) cecepeus.

Monday, August 10, 2015

A new frogfish: Porophryne erythrodactylus

 (photo by D. Harasti)
Frogfish are small, stocky creatures found in most tropical and subtropical oceans around the world. They belong to the group of anglerfishes and are often covered in spinules and other appendages to aid in camouflage. The camouflage serves two purposes: protection from predators and luring prey. Many species can change colour, others are covered with other organisms such as algae or hydrozoa. Frogfishes typically move slowly, lying in wait for prey, and then striking extremely rapidly.

The fish was first seen and collected in Australia in 1980, but the sole specimen disappeared soon after, leaving researchers no option but to shelve the discovery. Divers again saw the fish in 2005, and researchers worked with an Australian museum to collect three specimens. The fish had two different color patterns, leading scientists to believe there were two different species under the new genus. But only after they sequenced DNA from each, they realized they were the same species that have the capability to change from a grayish color to one that varies from reddish-pink to orange for camouflage.

The new species has a distinct red coloration on the tips of its pectoral fins. Its dorsal fins have a unique shape, allowing the fish to dart quickly over rocks. Other frogfish instead amble or "walk" across the seafloor. The colleagues named the new species Porophryne erythrodactylus - or Red-fingered anglerfish.

For the experts: A new genus and species of the frogfish family Antennariidae, subfamily Histiophryninae, is described on the basis of three specimens collected near Kurnell and Bare Island in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. It differs from all other antennariid genera in having a combination of features that includes a unique morphology of the first and second dorsal-fin spines, some or all fins fringed with red, and a unique combination of fin-ray and vertebral counts. The new genus is diagnosed, described, and compared to its sister genus, Kuiterichthys, using both molecular and morphological data. Notes on habitat and sponge mimicry, locomotion and defense, and reproduction and parental care are also provided as well as a diagnosis and a revised key to the known genera of the Histiophryninae.

Friday, August 7, 2015

Two new amphipods: Paracallisoma idioxenos and Haptocallisoma lemarete

Amphipods are incredibly diverse and adaptable; there are currently around 10, 000 species known to science. They live in all marine environments, from shallow waters to the ocean's deepest trenches, on land and in fresh water.

These new 3 mm long scavenging amphipods, live in depths of up to 4500 metres in the North Atlantic Ocean. The new species were first discovered by researchers off the coast of south-west Ireland, which is the nearest deep water to the UK. The animals act in swarms to strip the carcasses of dead marine animals, including whales, fish and seabirds. In order to catch these new species, the colleagues put mackerel bait in a trap and let it descend into the deep waters. When the traps were retrieved they contained up to 40,000 individuals. Here is a video showing amphipods eating a pig carcass, an experiment ran by the VENUS Coastal Network here in Canada:

The new amphipod species have been named in honour of the late, great taxonomist, Roger Bamber, who passed away in February this year. I gave the species name 'lemarete' to one of the amphipods because it translates from Greek to 'Bold and Excellent', which is the motto on Roger Bamber's coat of arms. I chose this name because it is an accurate description of Roger, as well as being a little cryptic. Roger always put a lot of thought into the names he gave species, such as the tanaid species he named after a many-legged creature in Terry Pratchett's Discworld.

For the experts: The genus Paracallisoma (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is revised and the type species, Paracallisoma alberti is redescribed based on holotype material supplemented with new material from the region of the type locality. This revision results in the establishment of two new genera, Pseudocallisoma gen. nov. and Haptocallisoma gen. nov., and the description of a new species of Haptocallisoma and a new species of Paracallisoma from the North Atlantic Ocean. An account of all known species within the three genera is given and updated keys to the genera and species are provided.

Thursday, August 6, 2015

A new anglerfish: Lasiognathus dinema

It took a Pixar movie to make them famous. If you ever seen Finding Nemo you will know what an anglerfish looks like and what they do to lure in their prey but I'd be happy to refresh your memory:

At the ocean depths this fish lives in, there is no sunlight. The only light is that from creatures that produce bioluminescence, which means they generate their own light source (with some help of symbiotic bacteria). Also, at these depths, the pressure is immense - over one ton per square cm. And the fight for food is never-ending. That's why these fish have developed their unique way of attracting prey - from the appendage at the top of their head, which resembles a fishing pole of sorts. And, like its human counterparts, this fish dangles the appendage until an unsuspecting fish swims up thinking they found a meal, only to quickly learn that they are, in fact, a meal themselves.

The new species, Lasiognathus dinema which, was found between 1,000-1,500 meters depth. The colleagues found three females specimens which ranged from 30 to 95 mm in length. The name dinema, is derived from the Greek, di, a prefix meaning “two,” and nema, “thread,” referring to two hook-like appendages on the fish's lure.

For the experts: A new species of the deep-sea ceratioid anglerfish genus Lasiognathus Regan (family Oneirodidae) is described on the basis of three female specimens collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Not especially similar to any of the five previously described members of the genus, the new species is unique in having a cylindrical, internally pigmented, anterior escal appendage and a pair of elongate distal escal appendages. The new species is diagnosed and described, and a revised key to the species of the genus is provided.

Wednesday, August 5, 2015

A new sea spider: Cheilopallene ogasawarensis

Pycnogonids are strange looking creatures which live in the seas and oceans of the world and normally have 4 pairs of walking legs although some species may have 5 or even 6 pairs. The typical pycnogonid looks like a malnourished spider walking backwards, which is why they are called Sea Spiders. Their body is greatly reduced to a point were it seems to be little more than a place for the legs to be attached.

Sea spiders are found all over the world, from coastal tropical waters to the poles. They are also found at depths as great as 7,000 m, though they are far more common in shallower waters. They range in size from a few millimetres leg-span to giants with a leg-span of 75 cm. 

The new species described here (Cheilopallene ogasawarensis) is of the smaller kind, with a body length of about a mm. The species name refers to the location it was found, the Ogasawara Islands in Japan.

For the experts: A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

Tuesday, August 4, 2015

A new shrimp: Periclimenes macrorhynchia

Today's new species belongs to a rather large genus of shrimp. All the 150 species of Periclimenes live symbiotically with other animals, such as sea anemones, corals, sea stars, sea cucumbers and in some cases even sea slugs.

The name of the new species refers to the feathery hydroid of the host genus Macrorhynchia. Hydroids are a life stage for most animals of the class Hydrozoa, small predators related to jellyfish. Some hydroids such as the famous freshwater Hydra are solitary, but the majority are colonial. The original polyp is anchored to a solid substrate and forms a bud which remains attached to its parent. It will turn into buds and form a branched stem, which is the characteristic arrangement of polyps of the species.

For the experts: A new species of pontoniine shrimp belonging to the ‘Periclimenes obscurus species group’ is described from the Berau Islands, North East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Specimens were obtained from aglaopheniid hydrozoans of the genus Macrorhynchia. The new species is here described and figured. Its affinities with related species are discussed and a DNA-barcode is provided.